Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein in 1921
Born 14 March 1879
Ulm, Kingdom of Württemberg, German Empire
Died 18 April 1955 (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, United States
Residence Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, United Kingdom, United States
Citizenship
  • Kingdom of Württemberg (1879–1896)
  • Stateless (1896–1901; 1933–1940)
  • Switzerland (1901–1955)
  • Austria–Hungary (1911–1912)
  • German Empire (1914–1918)
  • Weimar Republic (1919-January 1933)
  • Nazi Germany (January–March 1933)
  • United States (1940–1955)
Fields Physics
Institutions
  • Swiss Patent Office (Bern)
  • University of Zurich
  • Charles University in Prague
  • ETH Zurich
  • Caltech
  • Prussian Academy of Sciences
  • Kaiser Wilhelm Institute
  • University of Leiden
  • Institute for Advanced Study
Alma mater
  • ETH Zurich
  • University of Zurich
Doctoral advisor Alfred Kleiner
Other academic advisors Heinrich Friedrich Weber
Notable students
  • Ernst G. Straus
  • Nathan Rosen
  • Leó Szilárd
  • Raziuddin Siddiqui[1]
Known for
  • General relativity and special relativity
  • Photoelectric effect
  • Mass-energy equivalence
  • Theory of Brownian Motion
  • Einstein field equations
  • Bose–Einstein statistics
  • Bose-Einstein condensate
  • Bose–Einstein correlations
  • Unified Field Theory
  • EPR paradox
Notable awards
  • Nobel Prize in Physics (1921)
  • Matteucci Medal (1921)
  • Copley Medal (1925)
  • Max Planck Medal (1929)
  • Time Person of the Century (1999)
Spouse Mileva Marić (1903–1919)
Elsa Löwenthal (1919–1936)
Signature
Albert Einstein (pron.: /ˈælbərt ˈnstn/; German: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪnʃtaɪn] ( listen); 14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the general theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).[2][3] While best known for his mass–energy equivalence formula E = mc2 (which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation"),[4] he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect".[5] The latter was pivotal in establishing quantum theory.
Near the beginning of his career, Einstein thought that Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. This led to the development of his special theory of relativity. He realized, however, that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and with his subsequent theory of gravitation in 1916, he published a paper on the general theory of relativity. He continued to deal with problems of statistical mechanics and quantum theory, which led to his explanations of particle theory and the motion of molecules. He also investigated the thermal properties of light which laid the foundation of the photon theory of light. In 1917, Einstein applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe as a whole.[6]
He was visiting the United States when Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and did not go back to Germany, where he had been a professor at the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He settled in the U.S., becoming a citizen in 1940.[7] On the eve of World War II, he helped alert President Franklin D. Roosevelt that Germany might be developing an atomic weapon, and recommended that the U.S. begin similar research; this eventually led to what would become the Manhattan Project. Einstein was in support of defending the Allied forces, but largely denounced using the new discovery of nuclear fission as a weapon. Later, with the British philosopher Bertrand Russell, Einstein signed the Russell–Einstein Manifesto, which highlighted the danger of nuclear weapons. Einstein was affiliated with the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey, until his death in 1955.
Einstein published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works.[6][8] His great intellectual achievements and originality have made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius.[9]

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